Monday, February 28, 2005


Also called  aecidium  a cluster-cup or fruiting body of certain rust fungi (order Uredinales, division Mycota). Yellow to orange in colour, aecia develop after fertilization and bear one-celled spores (aeciospores, or aecidiospores). Aecia are usually found on lower leaf surfaces of plants.

Sunday, February 27, 2005


Department of central Peru and site of the national capital of Lima. The department stretches from the Pacific Ocean in the west to the Cordillera Occidental of the Andes in the east. There is little rainfall along its coastal section, and irrigation is possible only where rivers descend from the Andes. Fog often blankets the coast, especially from June to October;

Saturday, February 26, 2005

Perciform, Use as food

Since early times, the rivers and oceans have provided man with food; fishing was one of man's earliest means for securing food. Archaeological findings among shell mounds of Scotland indicate that the sea bream (family Sparidae) formed part of the diet of early man. The Nile perches (family Latidae) have been found as mummies in ancient tombs in Egypt. The goatfishes

Friday, February 25, 2005


Instrument for measuring the viscosity (resistance to internal flow) of a fluid. In one version, the time taken for a given volume of fluid to flow through an opening is recorded. In the capillary tube viscometer, the pressure needed to force the fluid to flow at a specified rate through a narrow tube is measured. Other types depend on measurements of the time taken for

Thursday, February 24, 2005

Houssay, Bernardo Alberto

Working with dogs that had been rendered diabetic by excision of the pancreas (1924–37), Houssay found that removal

Wednesday, February 23, 2005

Social War

The allies in central and southern Italy had fought side by side with Rome in several wars and had grown restive under Roman autocratic rule, wanting instead Roman citizenship and the privileges it conferred. In 91 BC the Roman tribune Marcus Livius

Monday, February 21, 2005

Christian Methodist Episcopal Church

Black Methodist church in the United States, organized in 1870 as the Colored Methodist Episcopal Church; it officially adopted its present name in 1956. The church originated from a movement begun in 1866 within the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, to organize the black members into an independent church. At the founding convention in 1870, two bishops from the Methodist Episcopal

Sunday, February 20, 2005

China, Buddhism

The spokesmen of Chinese Buddhism under the early Mongol rulers came from the Ch'an sect (meditation Buddhism). Their high intellectuality and refined aestheticism, however, did not appeal to the Mongols, who felt more attracted by the mixture of magic practices, rather nebulous metaphysics, and impressive symbolism in the visual arts of Tibetan Buddhism. Kublai

Saturday, February 19, 2005


Any of various electronic devices that produce alternating electric current, commonly employing tuned circuits and amplifying components such as thermionic vacuum tubes. Oscillators used to generate high-frequency currents for carrier waves in radio broadcasting often are stabilized by coupling the electronic circuit with the vibrations of a piezoelectric

Friday, February 18, 2005


City, capital of Río Negro provincia, south-central Argentina. It lies along the western bank of the Negro River 20 miles (32 km) from the river's mouth at the Atlantic Ocean, opposite Carmen de Patagones in Buenos Aires province. A fort called Mercedes de Patagones, built there in 1779 by the explorer Francisco de Viedma, was the capital of the Patagonian territory until the Río

Wednesday, February 16, 2005

X-ray Tube

Also called  Roentgen Tube,   vacuum tube that produces X rays by accelerating electrons to a high velocity with a high-voltage field and causing them to collide with a target, the anode. Because X rays can penetrate solid substances to varying degrees, they are applied in medicine and dentistry, in the exploration of the structure of crystalline materials, and in research. The tube consists of

Out Islands

The islands that make up The Bahamas apart from New Providence Island. Extending eastward off the Florida coast to just north of Hispaniola are about 3,000 islands and rocks, with a combined area of about 4,000 square miles (10,500 square km). About 20 of the islands are permanently inhabited. Pop. (1980) 74,068.

Monday, February 14, 2005

Kuang-wu Ti

Kuang-wu ti (“Shining Martial Emperor”) was a member of the imperial Liu family and a supposed descendant of Kao-tsu (reigned

Sunday, February 13, 2005

La Rioja

Provincia, northwestern Argentina, extending southeastward from Chile. The provincia's southeastern half is an arid to semiarid plain, while the northwestern section is crossed north to south by alternating mountain ranges and semiarid valleys associated with the Andean cordillera. Saline marshes and lakes of the southeast are formed by intermittent streams

Friday, February 11, 2005

Alaskan Malamute

Sled dog developed by the Malemiut, an Eskimo group from which it takes its name. The Alaskan Malamute is a strongly built dog, with a broad head, erect ears, and a plumelike tail carried over its back. Its thick coat is usually gray and white or black and white, the colours frequently forming a caplike or masklike marking on the head. The Alaskan Malamute stands about 23 to

Qattara Depression

Arid Libyan Desert (Eastern Saharan) basin in northwestern Egypt. Covering about 7,000 square miles (18,100 square km) and containing salt lakes and marshes, it descends to 435 feet (133 m) below sea level. During World War II, because it was impassable to military traffic, the depression formed a natural anchor at the southern end of the British defense lines at El-Alamein (Al-'Alamayn; in northwestern

Wednesday, February 09, 2005


Adela was married to Stephen, count of Meaux and Brie, in 1080 at Breteuil. Upon the death of his father in 1090, her husband succeeded to the countships of Blois and Chartres. She took an active interest in civil and ecclesiastical affairs and was

Tuesday, February 08, 2005

Zagwe Dynasty

Also spelled  Zague,   line of 12th- and 13th-century Ethiopian kings who combined a nomadic military life with an impassioned desire to build monuments to their Christian religion. Their tenuous pretensions to succession, based on a legendary marriage to a daughter of one of the last Aksumite kings, the line they deposed, was subsequently confirmed by the church; in return for its support,

Sunday, February 06, 2005

Ma'adi, Al-

Predynastic Egyptian site located just south of modern Cairo in Al-Qahirah muhafazah (governorate) in Lower Egypt. The settlement at Al-Ma'adi was approximately contemporary with the widespread Gerzean culture (c. 3400–c. 3100 BC) of Upper Egypt. Al-Ma'adi was apparently a peasant village with a separate cemetery; the settlement was characterized by rectangular huts, splay-footed vases,

Saturday, February 05, 2005


Also called  Polysiloxane,   any of a diverse class of chemical polymers manufactured in the form of fluids, resins, or elastomers. Although they are partially organic in composition, the molecules of silicones differ from those of most polymers in that the backbone of their structure does not contain carbon, the characteristic element of organic compounds, but is a polysiloxane chain, in which

Thursday, February 03, 2005


City, capital of Plock województwo (province), central Poland, on the Vistula River. First chronicled in the 10th century, Plock is the oldest community in Mazowsze (Mazovia), having served as the seat of Polish rulers from 1079 to 1138. It received town privileges in 1237 and prospered as a trading centre through the 17th century. In 1793 Plock passed to Prussia; it was returned to Poland in 1918. The town

Tuesday, February 01, 2005

Mitral Stenosis

Narrowing of the mitral valve, the function of which is to permit blood to flow from the atrium, or upper chamber, to the ventricle, or lower chamber, of the left side of the heart and to prevent its backflow. Narrowing of the mitral valve is usually a result of rheumatic fever; rarely, the narrowed valve is a congenital defect. The condition, most common in women under 45, is diagnosed