Friday, December 31, 2004


The world

Tuesday, December 28, 2004

Bottom Water

Dense, lowermost layer of ocean water that can be distinguished clearly from overlying waters by its characteristic temperature, salinity, and oxygen content. Most bottom waters of the South Pacific, southern Indian Ocean, South Atlantic, and portions of the North Atlantic are formed near Antarctica during the southern winter. The partial freezing of seawater

Sunday, December 26, 2004

La Plata River

Spanish  Río De La Plata,   river in east-central Puerto Rico, rising on the western slope of Mount Santa (2,963 feet [903 m]), a peak of the Sierra de Cayey. Part of the stream is impounded by Lake Carite; the reservoir's outlet diverts waters for a series of hydroelectric stations on the Guamaní River in the coastal Guayama area to the south. The La Plata itself flows about 45 miles (70 km) northwest and north, dropping

Friday, December 24, 2004

Nervous System, Annelids

The brain of most annelids (phylum Annelida; segmented worms, including the leeches and terrestrial earthworms) is relatively simple in structure. The earthworm brain is a bilobed mass lying above the pharynx in the third body segment (see the diagram). Sensory nerves leave the brain and run forward into the prostomium (extreme anterior end) and first segment. The brain

Thursday, December 23, 2004


Also called  Brown Lung, or Brown Lung Disease,   respiratory disorder, a type of pneumoconiosis caused by dust from cotton and other fibres, common among textile workers. When inhaled, the dust stimulates histamine release, which causes constriction of the air passages, making breathing difficult. Over time the dust accumulates in the lung, producing a typical discoloration that gives the disease its common

Tuesday, December 21, 2004

Romanov Dynasty

Rulers of Russia from 1613 until the Russian Revolution of February 1917. Descendants of Andrey Ivanovich Kobyla (Kambila), a Muscovite boyar who lived during the reign of the grand prince of Moscow Ivan I Kalita (reigned 1328–41), the Romanovs acquired their name from Roman Yurev (d. 1543), whose daughter Anastasiya Romanovna Zakharina-Yureva was the first wife of Ivan IV the Terrible (reigned

Sunday, December 19, 2004

Coral Reef

Coral polyps resemble sea anemones, to which they are closely related, but, unlike most anemones, most reef corals are colonial. Initial polyps divide themselves into

Thursday, December 16, 2004

Böhtlingk, Otto Von

While completing his education at the University of Bonn (1839–42), Böhtlingk published a two-volume edition (1839–40) of the earliest known grammar, that of

Wednesday, December 15, 2004


Fairfield is now a trade

Sunday, December 12, 2004

Biblical Literature, The process of canonization

The process of canonization was relatively long and remarkably flexible and detached; various books in use were recognized as inspired, but the Church Fathers noted, without embarrassment or criticism, how some held certain books to be canonical and others did not. Emerging Christianity assumed that through the Spirit the selection of canonical books was “certain

Saturday, December 11, 2004

Bosnia And Herzegovina, Transportation

The major obstacle to communication in Bosnia and Herzegovina has always been the mountainous topography. The railway system, begun under Austro-Hungarian rule (1878–1918), connects Sarajevo with major towns to the north and with Zagreb and Belgrade. Another line runs south from Sarajevo to Mostar and on to Ploce on Croatia's Adriatic coast. However, few lines are direct, and

Thursday, December 09, 2004


Film-making process in which a motion picture is projected on a screen, with the width of the image two and a half times its height. The French physicist Henri Chrétien (1879–1956) invented the technique in the late 1920s by which a camera, with the addition of a special lens, can “squeeze” a wide picture onto standard 35-millimetre film. Then, by the use of a special projection lens, the image

Monday, December 06, 2004

Gracchus, Tiberius Sempronius

Born into an aristocratic Roman family, Tiberius Sempronius was heir to a nexus of political connections with other leading families—most

Sunday, December 05, 2004


Town and capital of Delta state, southern Nigeria. It lies on the west bank of the Niger River (opposite Onitsha) and on the road to Benin City. A traditional market centre (cassava, yams, palm oil and kernels, kola nuts) for the Igbo (Ibo) people, it was the place where Richard and John Lander, the British explorers of the Niger, were taken captive by the Igbos in 1830. It later became

Friday, December 03, 2004

La Junta

City, seat (1889) of Otero county, southeastern Colorado, U.S. It lies along the Arkansas River at the northern edge of the Comanche National Grassland, at an elevation of 4,052 feet (1,235 metres). Founded in 1875, it was first called Otero, after a Spanish settler; its present name is Spanish for “the junction,” referring to its location at the convergence of the old Santa Fe and Navajo trails. La Junta