Saturday, July 31, 2004


Also called  Takhor,  Teos , or  Zedhor  second king (reigned 365–360 BC) of the 30th dynasty of Egypt; he led an unsuccessful attack on the Persians in Phoenicia. Tachos was aided in the undertaking by the aged Spartan king Agesilaus II, who led a body of Greek mercenaries, and by the Athenian fleet commander Chabrias. Tachos, however, insisted on leading the Egyptian army himself, and Agesilaus, after quarreling with his

North Germanic Languages, Norwegian

Old Norwegian writing traditions gradually died out in the 15th century after the union of Norway with Denmark and the removal of the central government to Copenhagen. After independence was achieved in 1814, the linguistic union with Danish persisted, but educational problems due to the linguistic distance between Danish and spoken Norwegian and socio-political

Thursday, July 29, 2004


Also spelled  Ponape,  also called  Ascension,   high coral-capped volcanic island, eastern Caroline Islands; it and nearby atolls constitute a state in the Federated States of Micronesia, in the western Pacific. Pohnpei island is roughly square and has a land area of 129 square miles (334 square km). It is well watered, hilly (rising to Mount Totolom, 2,593 feet [790 m]), and is surrounded by a barrier reef with many small islets. Its fertile

Wednesday, July 28, 2004


Bulimia generally begins during adolescence or early adult life and is more prevalent in

Noverre, Jean-georges

Distinguished French choreographer whose revolutionary treatise, Lettres sur la danse et sur les ballets (1760), still valid, brought about major reforms in ballet production, stressing the importance of dramatic motivation, which he called ballet d'action, and decrying overemphasis on technical virtuosity. His first choreographic

Monday, July 26, 2004

World War I, German strategy and the submarine war, 1916–January 1917

Both Admiral Scheer and General Falkenhayn doubted whether the German submarines could do any decisive damage to Great Britain so long as their warfare was restricted in deference to the protests of the United States; and, after a tentative reopening of the submarine campaign on Feb. 4, 1916, the German naval authorities in March gave the U-boats permission to sink without

Gennadius Of Novgorod

Named archbishop in 1485 by the grand prince of Moscow Ivan III (1462–1505), Gennadius initiated a persecution of Christian Judaizers, a movement of zealots stressing the monotheistic element

Sunday, July 25, 2004


City, coextensive with the town (township) of Danbury, Fairfield county, southwestern Connecticut, U.S. It lies along the Still River in the foothills of the Berkshire Hills. Settled in 1685, it was named in 1687 for Danbury, England, and was incorporated as a town in 1702. The municipality within the original town tract became a borough in 1822 and a city in 1889; the town and city were consolidated

Friday, July 23, 2004

Earth, The contribution of orbiting satellites

The development of artificial satellites whose orbits could be observed from Earth totally revolutionized man's ability to define the shape of the Earth and its gravity field. A value for the flattening of the ellipsoid that superseded all previous values was obtained within weeks after the launching of the Soviet Sputnik I in 1957. Since that time, scientists have

Osa Peninsula

Spanish  Península de Osa  peninsula, southern Costa Rica, bounded on the northwest by Coronado Bay, on the west by the Pacific Ocean, and on the east by the Gulf of Dulce. Costa Rica's second largest peninsula, Osa measures about 20 miles (30 km) northeast-southwest and about 35 miles (55 km) northwest-southeast. The generally low-lying terrain, rising to an elevation of 2,566 feet (782 m) at Tigre Hill, is used for livestock

Thursday, July 22, 2004

Price, Sir Uvedale, 1st Baronet

Price was a wealthy country squire, Knight his friend and neighbour; both were enthusiastic amateur landscape designers and critics of the prevailing trend.

Tuesday, July 20, 2004

Kramer, Dame Leonie Judith

Kramer studied at the University of Melbourne and at the University of Oxford and thereafter taught on Australian literature at various universities, serving as professor at the University of Sydney from 1968. She wrote several authoritative works on the Australian novelist Henry Handel Richardson

Monday, July 19, 2004

Grace Note

Musical note constituting or being part of an ornament. See appoggiatura.

Sharqiyah, Ash-

English  Eastern  region, eastern Saudi Arabia. The region includes most of the desert Rub' al-Khali (the Empty Quarter) and extends southward from a neutral zone jointly administered with Kuwait to indefinite borders with Yemen and Oman. It is bounded by Kuwait on the north, the Persian Gulf on the east, and the Ar-Riyad region on the west. Ash-Sharqiyah consists mainly of an undulating plain

Sunday, July 18, 2004

Adams, Samuel

Politician of the American Revolution, leader of the Massachusetts “radicals,” who was a delegate to the Continental Congress (1774–81) and a signer of the Declaration of Independence. He was later lieutenant governor (1789–93) and governor (1794–97) of Massachusetts.

Saturday, July 17, 2004

Hounsfield, Sir Godfrey Newbold

English electrical engineer who shared the 1979 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine with Allan Cormack for his part in developing the diagnostic technique of computerized axial tomography (CAT), or computerized tomography (CT). In this technique, information obtained from X rays taken by scanners

Thursday, July 15, 2004

Lupton, Thomas Goff

Lupton was apprenticed

Bahram Iv

One of the sons of Shapur II, Bahram first served as governor of Kerman before succeeding his brother Shapur III on the throne. Although the partition of Armenia with Rome is frequently ascribed to Bahram, it probably occurred in 387, during the reign of his brother Shapur.

Wednesday, July 14, 2004

Lee, Sammy

In 1942, while a student at Occidental College (Los Angeles), Lee won his first national championship with victories in both the 3-metre springboard and 10-metre platform events. Standing only 5 feet 1 inch, Lee utilized his short stature in his dives, tucking tighter and

Tuesday, July 13, 2004


Pinyin  Qiangtang , Tibetan  Byang Thang  enormous alpine basin in the northern part of the Tibetan autonomous ch'ü (region), China. With an average elevation of more than 16,500 feet (5,000 m) above sea level, it lies between the Kunlun Mountains to the north and the T'ang-ku-la Mountains and A-ling Mountains to the south and stretches 800 miles (1,300 km) from the mountain complex called the Pamir Knot in the west to the region of the Tsaidam

Sunday, July 11, 2004


A caste-cluster, or group of many endogamous castes, living chiefly in Maharashtra state, India, and in adjoining states. They mostly speak Marathi, the official language of Maharashtra. In the early 1980s the Mahar community was believed to constitute about 9 percent of the total population of Maharashtra—by far the largest, most widespread, and most important of all the officially


In poetry, the patterned recurrence, within a certain range of regularity, of specific language features, usually features of sound. Although difficult to define, rhythm is readily discriminated by the ear and the mind, having as it does a physiological basis. It is universally agreed to involve qualities of movement, repetition, and pattern and to arise from the poem's

Saturday, July 10, 2004

Lane, Harriet

She died of cancer in 1903 and was buried in the Greenmount Cemetery in Baltimore.

Thursday, July 08, 2004


The daughter of Neoptolemus, king of Epirus, Olympias apparently was originally named Myrtale. Later she may have been called Olympias as a recognition of Philip's

Wednesday, July 07, 2004

West Indies Associated States

Former political organization of islands in the Caribbean Sea that were British colonies whose status changed to free association with the United Kingdom in 1967. This status provided for internal self-government, with Britain responsible for external affairs and defense. The islands attempted several kinds of federation between 1958 and 1966 (see Leeward Islands), but the

The Environment

To the surprise of professional horticulturists, computers had a large impact on the field in 1997. Academics led the way, and numerous universities in industrialized countries converted their reference resources to on-line, searchable form, making them freely available via the World Wide Web. The types of information that were obtained from these sites included

Tuesday, July 06, 2004

Anti-saloon League

The leading organization lobbying for prohibition in the United States in the early 20th century. It was founded as a state society in Ohio in 1893, but its influence spread rapidly, and in 1895 it became a national organization. It drew most of its support from Protestant evangelical churches, and it lobbied at all levels of government for legislation to prohibit the manufacture

Monday, July 05, 2004

Lead Processing

Lead (Pb) is one of the oldest metals known, being one of seven metals used in the ancient world (the others are gold, silver, copper, iron, tin, and mercury). Its low melting point of 327° C (621° F), coupled with its easy castability and softness and malleability, make lead and lead alloys especially suitable for a wide range of cast products,

Sunday, July 04, 2004

Cagayan De Oro

City, northern Mindanao, Philippines. It lies along the Cagayan River near the head of Macajalar Bay. After its establishment as a mission station in the 17th century, it was fortified by the Spaniards. Cagayan de Oro was chartered as a city in 1950 and has become the transportation and commercial hub of northern Mindanao. Its international airport is a major stopover for

Saturday, July 03, 2004

Italian Literature, Fiction at the turn of the 21st century

The competitive world of media- and market-driven culture thrives on self-promotion, provocation, “discoveries,” and “revelations.” Publishers and their talent scouts are eager to add “new voices.” The Sardinian Salvatore Satta, for example, was a professor of law whose considerable literary production—his best-known novel is Il giorno del giudizio (1979; The Day of

Friday, July 02, 2004

Infection, Pancreatitis

Inflammation of the pancreas, or pancreatitis, may follow abdominal trauma or the formation of gallstones that obstruct the common bile duct. It can be associated with excessive ingestion of alcohol; with disorders such as cystic fibrosis or Reye's syndrome; or with scorpion stings. Infectious causes of pancreatitis include mycoplasmas, Epstein-Barr viruses

Thursday, July 01, 2004

Sculpture, Western, Constructivism and Dada

Between 1912 and 1914 there emerged an antisculptural movement, called Constructivism, that attacked the false seriousness and hollow moral ideals of academic art. The movement began with the relief fabrications of Vladimir Tatlin in 1913. The Constructivists and their sympathizers preferred industrially manufactured materials, such as plastics, glass, iron, and steel,